The Paris Agreement Simple
The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. In the end, all parties recognized the need to «prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,» but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  The level of NCC set by each country will determine the country`s objectives. However, the «contributions» themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only a «Name and Shame» system  or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J.
Pésztor, CBS News (US), a «Name and Encouragement» plan.  Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile. A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement.  Prof. John Shepherd of the National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, says the agreement contains some welcome aspirations, but few realize how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The goal of avoiding what scientists consider to be a dangerous and irreversible magnitude of climate change – which is reached at about 2oC of warming during pre-industrial periods – is of paramount importance to the agreement.
On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, «Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that «this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.» It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   In order to contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive national plans to combat climate change (nationally determined contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. One of the main outcomes of the 2015 Paris Agreement was that the United States and China originally signed, although the United States has not descended since.